The CNAP Artemisia Project was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Research by CNAP into the genetics of Artemisia led to the first publication of a detailed genetic map in the journal Science in 2010. The map was used to facilitate rapid plant breeding in parallel with other approaches. Extensive field testing of the new varieties in the major growing regions for Artemisia enabled the selection of just a few select hybrids to be considered for commercialisation: ultimately Hyb8001r was selected as the best commercial hybrid. Following two years of independent field trials against Chinese varieties, Hyb8001r was successfully passed as a new variety by the Chongqinq Academy of Materia Medica in April 2015. A Chinese name was given to the hybrid: 药客佳蒿1号, pronounced YaoKe JiaHao YiHao - the first word sounds like York and means ‘medicine people’; the other words mean ‘good Artemisia variety’ and ‘number one in the series’.
Subsequent research and development focused on a wider understanding of Artemisia biology, particularly in understanding the mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis. We worked with colleagues in the UK and US to achieve this objective.
This research was a component of Professor Ian Graham’s Group at the University of York – for further information see his webpage.
Czechowski T., Graham I.A., Weathers P.J., Brodelius P.E., Brown, G.D. (Topic Editors) (2018). Frontiers in Plant Science Research Topic ‘Artemisinin - From Traditional Chinese Medicine to Artemisinin Combination Therapies; Four Decades of Research on the Biochemistry, Physiology, and Breeding of Artemisia annua’, https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/5917/artemisinin---from-traditional-chinese-medicine-to-artemisinin-combination-therapies-four-decades-of#overview
Czechowski T., Larson T.R., Catania T.M., Harvey D., Brown G.D., Graham I.A. (2016). Artemisia annua mutant impaired in artemisinin synthesis demonstrates importance of nonenzymatic conversion in terpenoid metabolism. PNAS 113, 15150-15155.
Larson T.R., Branigan C.A., Harvey D., Penfield T., Bowles D.J., Graham, I.A. (2013). A survey of artemisinic and dihydroartemisinic acid contents in glasshouse and global field grown populations of the artemisinin-producing Artemisia annua L. Industr. Crops & Products 45, 1-6.
Townsend T., Segura V., Chigeza G., Penfield T., Rae A.M., Harvey D., Bowles D.J., Graham, I.A. (2013). The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production. PLoS ONE 8(4): e61989. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061989.
Graham I.A., Besser K., Blumer S., Branigan C.A., Czechowski T., Elias L., Guterman I., Harvey D., Isaac P.G., Khan A.M., Larson T.R., Li Y., Pawson T., Penfield T., Rae A.M., Rathbone D.A., Reid S., Ross J., Smallwood M.F., Segura V., Townsend T., Vyas D., Winzer T., Bowles D. (2010). The genetic map of Artemisia annua L. identifies loci affecting yield of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. Science 327, 328-331.